Figure 411

The layers of the epidermis. (Adapted with permission from Montagna W and Parakkal PF. The Structure and Function of Skin [3rd ed.]. New York: Academic, 1974.)

protein keratin surrounded by hydrophobic intercellular lipids, a remarkably effective barrier to many topically applied agents. The differentiation of ker-atinocytes in the basal layer from proliferative cells to highly differentiated nondividing cells in the stratum corneum is tightly regulated by a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including cytokines and calcium. The epidermis also contains melanocytes, which synthesize the photoprotective pigment melanin, and Langerhans cells, the dendritic antigen-presenting cells that compose the farthest outpost of the body's immune system.

The dermis provides a base for the epidermis and contains fibroblasts that elaborate proteins, such as collagens and elastin, which are crucial for the skin's structural integrity. In addition, mast cells, enriched in a variety of proinflammatory substances, play an important role in tissue remodeling, wound healing, and fibrosis.

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

This guide will help millions of people understand this condition so that they can take control of their lives and make informed decisions. The ebook covers information on a vast number of different types of neuropathy. In addition, it will be a useful resource for their families, caregivers, and health care providers.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment