Cellular calcium regulation. Depicted are several sites that control calcium entry, efflux, and sequestration. 1. Na+, Ca++ exchange. 2. Receptor-operated channels. 3. Voltage-gated channels. 4. Leak pathways. 5, 6. Entry and efflux in sarcoplasmic reticulum. 7. Plasma membrane pump. 8, 9. Entry and efflux in mitochondria. ATP adenosine triphosphate; CM, cell membrane.
nonvascular smooth muscle to the actions of these drugs, for example, the regional vascular selectivity and the general lack of activity of these agents in respiratory or gastrointestinal smooth muscle disorders.
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