Renal elimination of foreign compounds may change dramatically with increasing age by factors such as reduced renal blood flow, reduced glomerular filtration rate, reduced tubular secretory activity, and a reduction in the number of functional nephrons. It has been estimated that in humans, beginning at age 20 years, renal function declines by about 10% for each decade of life. This decline in renal excretion is particularly important for drugs such as penicillin and digoxin, which are eliminated primarily by the kidney.
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