Cytarabine

Cytarabine (cytosine arabinoside, ara-C, Cytosar-U) is an analogue of the pyrimidine nucleosides cytidine and deoxycytidine. It is one of the most active agents available for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia. Cytarabine kills cells in the S-phase of the cycle by competitively inhibiting DNA polymerase. The drug must first be activated by pyrimidine nucleoside kinases to the triphosphate nucleotide ara-cytosine triphosphate (ara-CTP). The susceptibility of tumor cells to cytara-bine is thought to be a reflection of their ability to activate the drug more rapidly (by kinases) than to inactivate it (by deaminases).

Cytarabine is rapidly metabolized in the liver, kidney, intestinal mucosa, and red blood cells and has a half-life in plasma of only 10 minutes after intravenous bolus injection. The major metabolite, uracil arabi-noside (ara-U), can be detected in the blood shortly after cytarabine administration. About 80% of a given dose is excreted in the urine within 24 hours, with less than 10% appearing as cytarabine; the remainder is ara-U. When the drug is given by continuous infusion, cytarabine levels in CSF approach 40% of those in plasma.

Cytarabine is used in the chemotherapy of acute myelogenous leukemia, usually in combination with an anthracycline agent, thioguanine, or both. It is less useful in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the lymphomas and has no known activity against other tumors. It has been used intrathecally in the treatment of meningeal leukemias and lymphomas as an alternative to meth-otrexate.

Myelosuppression is a major toxicity, as is severe bone marrow hypoplasia. Nausea and mucositis also may occur. Intrathecal administration occasionally produces arachnoiditis or more severe neurological toxicity.

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