Most of the contraindications specific to penta-zocine stem from its excitatory effects. Other contraindications are similar to those for morphine. Pentazocine is contraindicated in patients with myo-cardial infarction because it increases heart rate and cardiac load. Similarly, it is contraindicated in epileptic patients because it decreases seizure threshold. In addition, in head trauma patients, it can increase intracranial pressure and brain injury. Pentazocine use in patients with psychoses is contraindicated because of its psy-chotomimetic side effects.

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