Cellular Mechanisms of Action

Opioid receptors are members of the G protein super-family of receptors. Drug-induced interaction with these receptors is associated with a decrease in activation of the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and a subsequent decrease in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in the cell. Binding of opioids to their receptors produces a decrease in calcium entry to cells by decreasing the phosphorylation of the voltage operating calcium channels and allows for increased time for the channels to remain closed. In addition, activation of opi-oid receptors leads to potassium efflux, and the resultant hyperpolarization limits the entry of calcium to the cell by increasing the negative charge of the membrane to levels at which these calcium channels fail to activate. The net result of the cellular decrease in calcium is a decrease in the release of dopamine, serotonin, and nociceptive peptides, such as substance P, resulting in blockage of nociceptive transmission.

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

This guide will help millions of people understand this condition so that they can take control of their lives and make informed decisions. The ebook covers information on a vast number of different types of neuropathy. In addition, it will be a useful resource for their families, caregivers, and health care providers.

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