The effects of nicotine on the cardiovascular system mimic those seen after activation of the sympathoad-renal system, and they are principally the result of a release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla and adrenergic nerve terminals. These effects include a positive inotropic and chronotropic effect on the myocardium as well as an increase in cardiac output. In addition, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures are increased secondary to stimulation of the sympathoadrenal system. These effects are the end result of a summation of adrenergic and cholinergic stimulation.
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