Cardiac Effects

Calcium currents in cardiac tissues serve the functions of inotropy, pacemaker activity (sinoatrial (SA) node), and conduction at the atrioventricular (A-V) node. In principle, the blockade of calcium currents should result in decreased function at these sites. In clinical use, how-

TABLE 19.1 Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Channel Blockers*

Nifedipine Diltiazem Verapamil

Blood pressure

Vasodilation

+++

++

++

Heart rate

++

+

Contractility

0/+

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