1. D. A drug may be selective to a particular enzyme system that is found only in the microbe and have no harmful effect on the patient. An example is sul-fonamides blocking the enzyme dihydropteroate synthesis. This is a necessary step in the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid. Humans can use preformed dihy-drofolic acid and do not need this enzymatic step to produce purines. Pharmacodynamics describes what the drug does to the patient. Pharmacokinetics describes what the patient does to the drug. Sepsis describes what the pathogen does to the patient. Resistance is what the pathogen does to the drug.

2. C. The patient is very ill, and you cannot afford to wait for the diagnosis. You administer a combination of clindamycin and amikacin to ensure that you have coverage for gram-negative and gram-positive organisms and anaerobes. Vancomycin and penicillin G are effective against Gram-positive organisms only.

3. A. Ehrlich called salvarsan the magic bullet for its nontoxic effect to humans and to its toxicity against the organism responsible for syphilis.

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The Prevention and Treatment of Headaches

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