Answers

1. A. An Rh-negative mother can develop antibodies against the Rh antigen if she is exposed to the blood of an Rh-positive baby during pregnancy or birth. If no therapy is given, hemolytic anemia can occur in future Rh-positive babies. Rho(D) immune globulin contains antibodies against the Rh antigen. Administered to the mother, it will destroy any red blood cells from the baby that entered her blood, preventing the mother from developing an immune response to the Rh antigen.

2. C. Azathioprine is a phase-specific cytotoxic agent that functions by inhibiting purine synthesis. The other answers are wrong because azathioprine is nonspecific, is not an alkylating agent, has no effect on immune complexes, and does not induce antibody synthesis.

3. B. IL-2 stimulates the immune system by binding to the IL-2 receptors on responsive immune cells, causing differentiation and proliferation of T helper and T cytotoxic cells. It has no direct effect on the HIV virus, complement. or basophils.

4. D. The boy has significantly reduced serum antibody levels and a reduced ability to mount an antibody response to childhood vaccinations. The most probably cause is a primary immunodeficiency disease affecting humoral immunity.

5. B. The primary side effect of cyclosporine therapy is nephrotoxicity, occurring in up to 75% of cases. Unwanted hair growth and neurotoxicity are also commonly noted. The other answers are wrong because cyclosporine therapy is associated with hypertension, hyperkalemia, and hyperglycemia. There are no references to cyclosporine having cardiac or immune complex effects or causing hemorrhagic cystitis.

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