1. C. The most commonly reported side effects for all of the proton pump inhibitors are headache, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Heartburn is improved by these agents. Vomiting, constipation, and pares-thesias are not typical side effects of proton pump inhibitors.
2. D. Ranitidine is an H2-receptor antagonist. H2-receptors are found in the cell membrane of parietal cells, not in the nucleus, nucleolus, or cytoplasm. Mammalian cells do not have cell walls.
3. B. Two medicines, ipecac and apomorphine, induce vomiting. Metoclopramide is a prokinetic with antiemetic properties and therefore would have the opposite of the desired effect. Morphine is an opi-oid with analgesic and sedating properties. Promethazine and ondansetron are also antiemetics, not emetics.
4. C. The information provided suggests the patient has mild to moderate disease. Initial therapy should be a 5-ASA containing product, which includes sul-fasalazine and mesalamine. However, the patient has a sulfa allergy, precluding the use of sul-fasalazine. Metronidazole is useful in the treatment of some patients with Crohn's disease. Cyclosporine has been used in patients with fulminant ulcerative colitis. Prednisone may have to be added to this patient's therapy, but only if he fails to respond to the mesalamine. It should not be used initially.
5. E. A patient on hemodialysis has end-stage renal disease and therefore cannot tolerate excess magnesium and phosphorus. Visicol and Fleet Phospho soda have phosphates, and magnesium citrate has magnesium. GoLYTELY is an isosmotic unab-sorbable electrolyte-polyethylene glycol colonic lavage solution that is safe for patients with endstage renal disease. Dulcolax is a stimulant cathartic but is not sufficient for colonoscopy preparation.
6. A. Gastrin, histamine, and acetylcholine stimulate gastric acid secretion. Pepsin is a digestive protein secreted by the stomach in response to a meal. Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that does not affect gastric acid secretion.
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Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.