L D. Excretion (A) and drug clearance (E) are factors involved in drug elimination, while absorption (B) describes the ability of a drug to cross membranes and enter the blood stream. Distribution (C) describes the ability of a drug to enter a variety of body compartments during its circulation in the blood. 2. D. It is due to the ability of this cation to strongly bind to tooth surfaces, requiring strong abrasives to remove the stain. The other four compounds are not cationic and do not bind strongly to tissues.
3. E. Triclosan (A) is active against a broad range of oral gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Essential oils (B) are effective in reducing plaque levels by inhibiting bacterial enzymes. Chlorhexidine (C) is generally effective against all bacteria, but Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus, two bacteria particularly associated with dental lesions, are especially susceptible to its action. Stannous fluoride (D) is widely used in caries prevention, and many studies have proven its effectiveness.
4. B. None of the other compounds listed has been shown to decrease supragingival plaque in combination with the polymer in a commercial preparation.
5. C. All of the other preparations contain alcohol.
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