Human plasma contains a glycoprotein called an-giotensinogen, which serves as the only known substrate for renin. Angiotensinogen must undergo proteolysis before active portions of the protein are sufficiently unmasked to exert biological effects. Angiotensinogen is synthesized in many organs, including the liver, brain, kidney, and fat. Its gene transcription and plasma concentrations increase following treatment with adreno-corticotropic hormone (ACTH), glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone, and estrogens, as well as during pregnancy and inflammation and after nephrectomy. Angiotensinogen also has been found in large quantities in cerebrospinal and amniotic fluid. Mutations in the angiotensinogen gene have been reported to be linked to human hypertension.
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