Toxicity from overdose with acetaminophen differs in time course and mechanism from that observed with the salicylates.The onset of toxicity may not occur for several days, and the predominant damage is to the liver. The initial signs of toxicity occur within 12 to 24 hours and include nausea and vomiting. Signs of hepatotoxicity occur within 72 hours. In addition to hepatotoxic effects, renal necrosis and myocardial damage may occur. Oral N-acetylcysteine is used to treat acetaminophen toxicity, although many patients are hypersensitive to such treatment. In addition, gastric lavage with activated charcoal can be used immediately after ingestion of the drug to decrease acetaminophen absorption from the stomach.
Acetaminophen is contraindicated in late-stage alcoholism, since chronic alcohol consumption can induce the P450 system, leading to increased production of the toxic metabolite of acetaminophen, hence to liver necrosis. In addition, barbiturates and phenytoin induce the liver P450 system and may decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen. Acetaminophen crosses the placenta but is nonetheless used in pregnant women with few side effects for the mother or the fetus. Although the drug has been shown to be present in breast milk, no conclusive evidence links the drug to abnormalities associated with consumption of breast milk by the newborn.
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Alcoholism is something that can't be formed in easy terms. Alcoholism as a whole refers to the circumstance whereby there's an obsession in man to keep ingesting beverages with alcohol content which is injurious to health. The circumstance of alcoholism doesn't let the person addicted have any command over ingestion despite being cognizant of the damaging consequences ensuing from it.