Absorption Distribution Metabolism and Excretion

Although itraconazole and fluconazole are both tria-zoles, they are chemically and pharmacologically distinct. Itraconazole (Sporanox) is lipophilic and water insoluble and requires a low gastric pH for absorption. Oral bioavailability is variable, only 50 to 60% when taken with food and 20% or less when the drug is taken on an empty stomach. Itraconazole is highly protein bound (99%) and is metabolized in the liver and excreted into the bile. With initial dosing, the plasma halflife is 15 to 20 hours; steady-state serum concentrations are reached only after 2 weeks of therapy, when the half-life is extended to 30 to 35 hours. In lipophilic tissues, drug concentration is 2 to 20 times that found in serum. Drug does not appear in significant quantities in the urine and cannot be measured in spinal fluid.

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