Socioeconomic institutions

Regulation has been brought forward as a major area of concern in discussions oriented to the socio-economic sphere. It therefore emerges as a focal issue for solutions with far-reaching consequences for the processes in the two other spheres and the interaction between spheres. One point of particular concern that is supported by the analysis in different chapters is the notion that the current system is sharply bounded and rather inflexible in nature. With regard to registration practices it...

References

Almekinders, C.J.M., Struik, P.C. & Fresco, L.O. (1995) The need to study and manage variation in agro-ecosystems. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, 43, 127-42. Ammon, H.U., Struik, P.C. & Stamp, P. (1990) Silomaisproduktion in klimatischen Grenzlagen. VII Agrarokologische Aspekte des Anbaus. Kali-Briefe (B ntehof), 20, 293-309. de Buck, A. (2001) The role of production risks in the conversion to more sustainable arable farming. Doctorate thesis, Wageningen University. Caldiz,...

Standard setting and certification for integrated production

Integrated production or Integrated Crop Management (ICM), though much used and debated, is not easily defined. This production method could be considered as a stepwise implementation of a range of agricultural practices that more or less radically diverge from conventional agriculture. ICM aims to minimise the use of fertilisers and pesticide products by favouring other measures such as natural predators, crop rotation and mechanical weeding. Pests need not be eliminated, but rather kept under...

A framework for analysis production innovation institutions

To understand why pesticide problems are so persistent, what the reasons are for 'regulatory failure', and how these problems might be solved or circumvented, is a complex and challenging endeavour. It is further complicated by the facts that the pesticide debate has become highly politicised and that the positions of several participants in the debate have become rather entrenched. It is simplistic to one-sidedly blame either the agrochemical industry or farmers for all the problems and...

The CAP Agenda 2000 reform and organic farming

The state of European agriculture and rural life is largely shaped by the CAP regime, which has provided a macro policy framework, in a somewhat contradictory and imperfect way. The CAP also provides the umbrella under which member states can support organic farming. The aims of the CAP as set out in the Treaty of Rome (article 39) set the tone for the contradictions within this policy. The aims included to increase agricultural productivity by promoting technical progress ensure a fair...

Prevention

An essential element of proper management of diseases, pests and weeds is prevention. It is crucial to design land use systems, farming systems and cropping systems in such a way that problems will hardly occur. Land use systems can be re-designed in such a way that the spatial and temporal distribution of crops of the same species is less conducive to the spread of the disease or pest (Oskam et al. 1998). Regional distribution of crops can be regulated, e.g. minimum distances between crops of...

Radicality of agrochemical innovation

In addition to discussing the process and drivers of agrochemical innovation, the outcomes are interesting too, especially in the light of the industry's claim of developing innovative solutions. Earlier research (Achilladelis et al. 1987 Achilladelis & Antonakis 2001) suggests that agrochemical companies which introduce more radical innovations are more successful than companies introducing relatively more incremental innovations, arguably because of first-mover advantages (notably patent...

Organic farming sustainable agriculture and the modern agrofood system

A related theme within both conventional and alternative agriculture over the past decade or more has been the need to make agriculture more sustainable. Sustain-ability has proven to be a universally embraced and appropriated concept, and consequently its meaning is highly contested. Jules Pretty (1998), as an advocate, has identified some key principles for sustainable agriculture firstly, a thorough integration of natural processes such as nutrient cycling, nitrogen fixation, soil...