Millon Clinical Multiaxial InventoryIn

One of the most widely acclaimed leaders in the personality disorder field is Theodore Millon who in the late 1970s began developing one of the first standardized self-report measures of personality disorders called the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI; Millon, 1983). The MCMI was created to evaluate personality disorders according to Millon's own theory of personality psychopathology, but it was generally consistent with DSM-III conceptualizations of personality disorders. The MCMI was subsequently revised and renamed the MCMI-II (Millon, 1987) to match changes in Millon's theory and changes in the DSM-III-R. The most current version is the MCMI-III (Millon, Davis, & Millon, 1997), which is largely aligned with DSM-IV, although there are some subtle differences in conceptualizations of some personality disorders.

The MCMI-III is a 175-item, true-false, self-report inventory that is widely used in research and clinical activities for the assessment of personality disorders and clinical syndromes. The Axis II (personality disorder) scales are linked to Millon's comprehensive theory of personality, which is anchored broadly and firmly to evolutionary theory. In contrast, the Axis I (clinical disorder) scales are not explicitly derived from Millon's theory and essentially represent DSM constructs.

The MCMI-III includes 11 Clinical Personality Patterns scales: Schizoid, Avoidant, Depressive, Dependent, Histrionic, Narcissistic, Antisocial, Aggressive/Sadistic, Compulsive, Nega-tivistic (Passive-Aggressive), and Self-Defeating Personality Disorder. Three Severe Personality Pathology scales are also included and these are: Schizotypal, Borderline, and Paranoid Personality Disorder. Each represent more advanced stages of personality pathology with episodes of psychosis. Additionally, 7 Clinical Syndromes scales (Axis I related) are provided, covering moderate clinical presentations (e.g., Anxiety, Somatoform, Dysthymia, Alcohol Dependence) whereas 3 Severe Syndromes scales denote more serious clinical disorders (Thought Disorder, Major Depression, and Delusional Disorder). The MCMI-III has a Validity Index (3 items of an improbable nature) and 3 Modifying Indices (Disclosure, Desirability, and Debasement) designed to detect deviant test-tasking attitudes defensiveness or exaggeration of problems (Millon et al., 1997).

An important component of the MCMI-III is that it is designed for adults being seen in mental health settings and, thus, should not be used in nonclinical populations or distorted results will emerge. Specifically, the test will likely severely over-pathologize if given in nonclinical settings. Administration is either by paper and pencil or computer administered. The MCMI-III must be computer scored during which raw scores for each scale are converted into Base Rate scores, which differ by gender (Millon et al., 1997). The MCMI's have been the focus of over 500 research publications and the MCMI-III ranks among the most widely used testing instruments in clinical practice. The MCMI-III has a wealth of data supporting its psychometric properties (see recent review by Millon & Meagher, 2004). At present, Millon has no plans to develop an MCMI-IV.

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  • LINDA
    When was million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory created?
    2 months ago

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