Interpersonal Theories of Personality Disorders

Interpersonal theories tend to have a broad theoretical perspective, including interactions with others and the effects that culture, gender, and environmental factors have on the individual psyche and outward behavior. Such theorists as Harry Stack Sullivan, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Sidney Jourard, Timothy Leary, and Lorna Smith Benjamin may be good representatives for aspects of interpersonal theories, but psychoanalyst Karen Horney developed one of the premier, time-tested, interpersonal theories. Her theory addressed the continuum of psychologically healthy and unhealthy as well as cultural and gender issues, yet her simple language allowed easy access by nonprofessionals. Furthermore, one of Horney's biographers (Paris, 1994) described that what Horney wrote of as neuroses should now best be conceived of as modern personality disorders. For our exposition, we focus on Horney's model.

Karen Horney was born in Germany on September 16, 1885. She was trained as a medical doctor and underwent psychoanalysis herself with Karl Abraham who was a close friend and associate of Freud. From 1915 to 1932, she worked as a psychoanalyst in private practice and later taught and practiced psychoanalysis at the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute. She moved to the United States to direct the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis and then moved to New York City in 1934 to practice and teach at the New School for Social Research. She is best remembered for a number of creative and insightful books, The Neurotic Personality of Our Time (1937), New Ways in Psychoanalysis (1939), Our Inner Conflicts (1945), Neurosis and Human Growth (1950), Feminine Psychology (a collection of her writings published posthumously, 1967), and Final Lectures (1987).

Because of her strong objections to some traditional Freudian ideas, such as inherited temperaments, penis envy, and the death instinct, she was expelled from the New York Psychoanalytic Institute in 1941. She then cofounded her own group, the Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis. She expanded her ideas far beyond the borders of traditional psychoanalysis and also had interests in Zen and oriental philosophies. She died in New York City on December 4, 1952, at the age of 67.

Power Of Positive Thoughts In The Post Modern Age

Power Of Positive Thoughts In The Post Modern Age

The Power Of Positive Thinking In The Post Modern Age Manifest Positive Thoughts In This Fast Pace Age. Positive thinking is an attitude that admits into the brain thoughts, words and pictures that are conductive to development, expansion and success.

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