Theories may provide ultimate or proximal explanations for behavior, particularly in the evolutionary paradigm. Ultimate explanations attempt to understand behavior based on our long evolutionary history in our remote ancestral environments. Proximal explanations seek understanding in our immediate biological and social environments. In this chapter, we examine both ultimate and proximal biological explanations for personality disorders (the evolutionary and neurobiological theories, respectively). These biological theories are perhaps most useful in providing foundations for understanding the origins of personality disorders but they are less useful for the purposes of case conceptualization and informing treatment.

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

The Ultimate Guide To Overcoming Fear And Getting Breakthroughs. Fear is without doubt among the strongest and most influential emotional responses we have, and it may act as both a protective and destructive force depending upon the situation.

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