Coolidge Axis II Inventory

The Coolidge Axis II Inventory (CATI; Coolidge, 2000; Coolidge & Merwin, 1992) is a 225-item, self-report inventory designed and revised to assess personality disorders and many clinical disorders according to the specific diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR. Items are answered on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from strongly false to strongly true. The CATI measures all 10 personality disorders in the main text of the DSM-IV-TR but it also covers the Passive-Aggressive and Depressive Personality Disorders in the appendix of the DSM-IV-TR and the Sadistic and Self-Defeating Personality Disorders from the appendix of DSM-III-R.

Items on each personality disorder scale were designed to cover a specific diagnostic criterion from the DSM, thus the CATI is essentially atheoretical by design. Validity scales include a 3-item scale to detect random responding and a 97-item scale to detect denial and defensiveness, called the Tendency to Deny Blatant Psychopathology.

Like the MCMI-III, the CATI also provides assessment for many Axis I scales. These include: Depression, Anxiety, Schizophrenia, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The DSM-IV-TR Personality Change Due to a General Medical Condition is also evaluated, with scales measuring each of the five subtypes: Apathy, Disinhibition, Emotional Lability, Aggression, and Paranoia. A unique feature of the CATI is that it has an 18-item neuropsychological dysfunction scale for assessing neuropsy-chological symptoms of brain disease, trauma, and dysfunction, with three subscales assessing language and speech dysfunction, memory and concentration difficulties, and neurosomatic complaints related to brain dysfunction. The CATI also includes a 16-item executive functions of the frontal lobe scale with three subscales measuring poor planning, decision-making difficulty, and task incompletion. Two other features of the CATI make it distinctive. First, a significant-other version of test is available so that informants can rate the clinical and personality disorder features of a person being evaluated (Coolidge, Burns, & Mooney, 1995). As noted earlier, informants may be able to identify abnormal personality traits of which the patient is unaware. Second, a parent-rated version of the CATI is available to assess personality disorders and neuropsychological problems in children and adolescents (ages 5 to 17 years; Coolidge et al., 2002).

Administration of the CATI is either by paper and pencil or computer administered. Scoring must be done by computer (the CATI and its software are available to researchers for free). Raw scores on all CATI scales are translated into T-scores (with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10) based on a normative sample of 1700 adults. According to the CATI manual, T-scores above 70 are indicative of the likely presence of the particular disorder. Provision of standardized scores is important because elevations on the individual personality disorder scales can be compared against each other. Also, the large normative data base from which standard scores are created helps reduce the problem of false positives. Indeed, a respondent must score at least two standard deviations above the mean to be considered to meet the diagnostic threshold. The CATI can be used in both normal and clinical populations because it views personality disorders as dimensional in nature. The CATI has been used in over 100 research publications and the psychometric properties appear strong.

Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

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