Inadequate Personality Disorder

The Inadequate Personality Disorder description in DSM-II included ineffectual responses to any physical, intellectual, social, or emotional demands placed on the individual. Despite the lack of any real physical or intellectual deficits, these patients appear poorly adapted to their environment, are inept, have poor judgment, are socially unstable, lack physical and emotional stamina, and chronically cannot cope with everyday stress and strain. Detailed, behaviorally specific criteria were not...

Personality Disorders and Dementia

Perhaps the ultimate overarching task in late life is that of life review looking back over one's life, reflecting on it, and making meaning from the journey. Erik Erikson's (1963) influential developmental theory posited a conflict between ego integrity and despair, with the successful outcome being the achievement of wisdom. As clinicians, we recognize that there can be many hurdles along the way. Wisdom might be a possible outcome, but simply becoming old does not guarantee its achievement....

International Personality Disorder Examination

The International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE Loranger, 1999) is an extensive-semi-structured diagnostic interview to evaluate personality disorders according to both the DSM-IV and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10) classification systems. Impetus for the creation of the IPDE came from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration in their joint effort aimed at producing a standardized assessment...

Structured Clinical Interview for Dsmiv Axis II Personality Disorders

The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II First, Gibbon, Spitzer, Williams, & Benjamin, 1997) was developed to complement the widely used Axis I version of the SCID (First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1997). The SCID-II has semi-structured format (like the Axis I version) but it covers the 10 standard DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders, as well as Personality Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, and Depressive Personality Disorder and...

Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire Fourth Edition Plus

The Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire has been through several revisions since its inception and the latest edition is called the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire Fourth Edition Plus (PDQ-4+ Hyler, 1994), which is consistent with the DSM-IV. The PDQ-4+ assesses the 10 standard personality disorders in the DSM-IV and the plus indicates that the measure also assesses Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder and Depressive Personality Disorder in Appendix B of the DSM-IV. The PDQ-4+ contains...

Sadistic Personality Disorder Dsmiiir Appendix A

People with Sadistic Personality Disorder are pervasively cruel, demeaning, and verbally and physically aggressive in most of their relationships. The sadistic behavior is typically more evident when the sadistic individual is in a position of power, as in the role of a father, mother, or uncle, or in occupational settings as a boss or in any position where there are subordinates. In contrast, individuals with Sadistic Personality Disorder often manage to contain their behavior when they are in...

Antisocial Personality Disorder

As the term antisocial implies, individuals with this disorder are against society. Indeed, the hallmark feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and failure to comply with, societal norms. Among people with Antisocial Personality Disorder, the rights of others are never a consideration, and when individuals with this disorder hurt, deceive, manipulate, abuse, or victimize others, they fail to experience remorse, guilt, or shame. When caught, antisocial types may weep crocodile tears...

Passive Aggressive Personality Disorder Dsmivtr Appendix B

The Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder has been in the DSM since its inception in 1952. Only in 1994 with the advent of DSM-IV was the Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder removed from Axis II and placed in an appendix. The reasons for its drop in diagnostic status are uncertain however, Appendix B of DSM-IV-TR is intended to foster research that may result in a refinement of the diagnosis and its criteria, so it is possible the type may reappear in revised form in future versions of...

Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

This disorder is characterized by a preoccupation with rules, details, organization, orderliness, and internal and external control. People with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder are highly perfectionistic, and they apply their overly strict standards to their own behavior and that of others. This preoccupation with details, lists, schedules, routines, organization, and perfectionism is so engrossing that the major point of the activity or project often becomes obscured, lost in the...

The Case of Doreen Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Doreen G. is a 68-year-old woman who has come to the attention of mental health professionals only twice in her life. The first time was early in high school when the teachers were concerned about the degree of her introversion and lack of connection to her classmates, and about her sometimes bizarre facial expressions, which did not seem to match the events going on around her. She was a bit peculiar and significantly withdrawn and detached. Her parents were called into school to discuss these...

Neuroses Psychoses and Personality Disorders

Freud called his earliest conception of neurosis neurasthenia, and he saw all neurasthenias as rooted in sexual difficulties. Later, he differentiated the neurasthenias into different types, such as anxiety, hysteria, melancholia, narcissistic, obsessional, sexual, and war neuroses. He maintained that neuroses had no specific etiologic factor but that their nucleus, regardless of neurotic type, was the Oedipal conflict (or presumably Electra conflict for women) during the phallic stage....

The Debate about Stability versus Change for the Personality Disorders

Whereas the extant cross-sectional data suggest some tendency for personality disorders overall to be less prevalent in older persons, a different issue is the stability or change in personality disorder signs and symptoms across the life span. Definitive data are lacking about this issue, and in fact, there is some controversy in the geropsychological literature about whether personality disorders decline or mellow with advancing age (Coolidge et al., 1992 Molinari, Kunik, Snow-Turek, Deleon,...

Histrionic Personality Disorder

The essential features of this personality disorder are excessive emotionality and attention-seeking behavior. These individuals are uncomfortable when not the center of attention and characteristically engage in overly dramatic, excessive, exaggerated, and affected emotional displays for which the primary goal is to secure attention and admiration from others. They may present themselves in a sexually seductive, flirtatious, and provocative manner and are concerned with their physical...

Avoidant Personality Disorder

This disorder manifests itself as a pervasive pattern of social inhibition or intense shyness, coupled with a longing for relationships. People with Avoidant Personality Disorder are extremely sensitive about how others perceive them, and they are especially preoccupied with and afraid of social criticism or rejection. As a consequence, they typically avoid entering into social situations in which they might be scrutinized or rejected. Cogni-tively, they tend to exaggerate the risks associated...

Cognitive Theories of Personality Disorders

It may be useful to define what is meant by the various terms cognitive theory, behaviorism, cognitive therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT . Theories of cognition are as old as the original foundations of psychology. Cognitive psychology was originally the study of internal mental processes. Wilhelm Wundt, a German psychologist and arguably the founder of psychology, used a method, in 1879, called introspection in which his subjects would be asked to reflect inwardly on their thought...

The Case of Louis Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

Louis M. was referred to the psychologist by his internist who had cared for Louis and his wife for many years. The physician lived in the same town and knew Louis not only as a patient but also as an active resident of the community. Louis's name was frequently cited in the town's weekly newspaper. He was outspoken, relied on well-documented facts, and had served over the years as a town selectman and chairman of the town's project development committee. His civic activities were in addition...

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Individuals with this disorder are characterized as bizarre or eccentric with odd perceptions and cognitions. Their eccentricities are typically not confined to an isolated area rather, schizotypal people often combine a peculiar style of dress or appearance, strange uses of language, unusual behaviors, and odd thought patterns. Their hygiene may be also poor. As such, schizotypal people are often identified easily and quickly by others, even nonclinicians. The schizotypal type is the classic...

Horneys Description of Types

Compliant Type (Moving toward People) Compliant types have a strong and compulsive need for affection, approval, belonging, and human intimacy. They need a partner on whom they can regularly rely for help, protection, and guidance. Their urge to satisfy these compulsions is so strong that they often forget what their own real feelings are because they become so sensitive to their partner's feelings. They become so unselfish and self-sacrificing that they have a warped view of their own needs...