Some Major Factor Models

The most prominent current factor model of personality is the Five-Factor Model (Costa & McCrae, 1989). The five-factor model was derived from analyses of various personality inventories, not words from the dictionary. Nevertheless, the results have proven similar, with some exceptions. As the name indicates, this model consists of five broad higher order dimensions. In turn, each dimension consists of several lower order facet traits, thus lending the model a hierarchical structure. Higher order traits make broad, but somewhat imprecise, predictions about behavior; and lower order traits make predictions that are more precise but somewhat narrow. For example, individuals who are high on the first factor, neuroticism, are likely to feel anxious, angry and hostile, depressed, self-conscious, impulsive, and vulnerable. However, although being high in neuroticism increases the chances of impulsive behavior or feelings of depression, these are not inevitable. Likewise, many people are impulsive without being terribly anxious, angry or hostile, or depressed. Thus, saying that someone is neurotic makes a broad statement but isn't very detailed, and saying that someone is impulsive makes a detailed statement but doesn't say much more. The opposite of neuroticism is emotional stability, that is, a tendency to be free of worry, calm, and controlled.

Four other factors round out the five-factor model. Definitions of each factor and their facet traits are described in Costa and McCrae (1992) and paraphrased here. The second factor, extroversion, includes the facets of warmth, a tendency to be affectionate and friendly; gregariousness, a tendency to seek social stimulation; assertiveness, a tendency to be dominant and forceful; activity, a tendency toward movement and energy; excitement seeking, a tendency to crave stimulation; and positive emotions, a tendency toward joy, happiness, love, and optimism. The third factor, openness to experience,

TABLE 2.2 Factor Models of Normal and Abnormal Personality Domains

Normal Personality Models Personality Disorder Factor Models

Lexical "Big Five" Model Livesley and Associates Clark and Associates

Normal Personality Models Personality Disorder Factor Models

Lexical "Big Five" Model Livesley and Associates Clark and Associates

TABLE 2.2 Factor Models of Normal and Abnormal Personality Domains

1.

Surgency (or Extroversion)

1.

Compulsivity

1.

Suicide proneness

2.

Agreeableness

2.

Conduct problems

2.

Self-derogation

3.

Conscientiousness

3.

Diffidence

3.

Anhedonia

4.

Emotional stability

4.

Identity problems

4.

Instability

(vs. Neuroticism)

5.

Insecure attachment

5.

Hypersensitivity

5.

Intellect (or Culture)

6.

Intimacy problems

6.

Anger/Aggression

7.

Narcissism

7.

Pessimism

Five-Factor Model

8.

Suspiciousness

8.

Negative affect

1.

Neuroticism

9.

Affective lability

9.

Suspiciousness

2.

Extroversion

10.

Passive oppositionality

10.

Self-centered exploitation

3.

Openness to experience

11.

Perceptual cognitive distortion

11.

Passive-aggressiveness

4.

Agreeableness

12.

Rejection

12.

Dramatic exhibitionism

5.

Conscientiousness

13.

Self-harming behaviors

13.

Grandiose egocentrism

14.

Restricted expression

14.

Social isolation

Big Seven Model

15.

Social avoidance

15.

Emotional coldness

1.

Positive valence

16.

Stimulus seeking

16.

Dependency

2.

Negative valence

17.

Interpersonal disesteem

17.

Conventionality-rigidity

3.

Positive emotionality

18.

Anxiousness

18.

Dependency

4.

Negative emotionality

19.

Impulsivity

5.

Conscientiousness

Harkness and Associates

20.

High energy

6.

Agreeableness

1.

Aggressiveness

21.

Antisocial behavior

7.

Conventionality

2.

Psychoticism

22.

Schizotypal thought

3.

Constraint

4.

Negative emotionality-neuroticism

5.

Positive emotionality-extroversion

consists of the facets of fantasy, the use of imagination and creativity to enrich life; aesthetics, the ability to appreciate art, beauty, and poetry; feelings, a receptivity to inner feeling and deep emotional experience; actions, a preference for novelty over the routine and familiar; ideas, an intellectual curiosity and willingness to entertain unconventional ideas; and values, an openness to examining established social, political, and religious values. The fourth factor, agreeableness, consists of the facets of trust, a willingness to believe that others are honest and well-intentioned; straightforwardness, a tendency to be frank and sincere; and four other facets. The fifth factor, conscientiousness, consists of the facets of competence, a tendency to be capable and effective; order, a tendency to be neat and organized; dutifulness, a tendency to keep to ethical principles and moral obligations; achievement striving, a tendency to invest time in moving forward with ambition; self-discipline, a willingness to complete tasks in spite of distraction or boredom; and deliberation, the tendency not to act without premeditation. Each factor consists of six facets.

Whereas five-factor researchers have approached personality disorders through models derived from normal subjects, other researchers have produced factor models specifically within the domain of personality pathology. Clark (1990) factored a pool of descriptors that focused on DSM-III personality disorder criteria, as well as certain non-DSM personality-relevant concepts, including Cleckley's (1964) description of the psychopath and criteria from certain personality-related disorders on Axis I, resulting in more than 20 dimensions (see Table 2.2). In contrast, Livesley and associates (Lives-ley, Jackson, & Schroeder, 1989) used in-depth reviews of the personality literature in conjunction with detailed consideration of the Axis II criteria of the revised third edition of the DSM to suggest the basic traits of personality pathology. Seventy-nine trait dimensions were required to represent the 11 personality disorders of the DSM-III-R. Self-report items were then written and given to two samples from the general population, ultimately increasing the total number of scales to 100. A factor analysis then extracted 15 factors; 3 others were added on rational grounds, resulting in a total of 18 constructs (see Table 2.2). They also studied the relationship between their results and the five-factor model and concluded that although the other factors are relevant to personality pathology, openness to experience plays only a limited role.

Other researchers have sought to show the limitations of the five-factor model by gathering their information in different ways. Harkness and McNulty (1994) found five personality dimensions, but with substantial differences from the five-factor model. In particular, their model includes two factors called constraint and psychoticism, which they regard as being qualitatively different from conscientiousness or openness to experience. Finally, Tellegen and Waller (1987) reported a seven-factor model, arguing that the tradition based originally on Allport and Odbert (1936) erroneously excludes evaluative terms such as ordinary, excellent, and bad, so important to abnormal behavior and global appraisals of the self. When 400 personality traits were isolated from the 1985 American Heritage Dictionary and factor analyzed, the Big Seven model was born. To further strengthen their claim, Almagor, Tellegen, and Waller (1995) researched the cross-cultural validity of the Big Seven in Hebrew, arguing that cultural and linguistic differences between Israel and the United States would provide a strong test of its replic-ability. Seven factors were robust across rotation methods and number of factors extracted, with six of the seven present in the previous study. More important, the two largest factors were again positive evaluation and negative evaluation, indicating clear evidence for the replicability of these factors in a culture substantially different from that in which the Big Seven were originally found. Strangely, the remaining factors do not bear much resemblance to the five-factor model.

The variety of available factor models and the continuing contention among different groups of researchers have been important forces in moderating the widespread acceptance of any particular factor model as the final word in personality description. Accordingly, the personality disorders chapters of this book do not discuss the inductive approach alongside the biological, cognitive, psychodynamic, and interpersonal perspectives.

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