Objectives

• What are the two personality disorders listed in the appendix of the DSM-III-R that are excluded from the DSM-IV?

• What are the DSM-III-R criteria for the self-defeating (masochistic) personality?

• The self-sacrificing and yielding personalities are normal variants of the masochistic. Describe their characteristics and relate them to the more disordered criteria offered by the DSM-III-R.

• Explain how different personality styles combine to form each of the subtypes of the masochistic personality.

• Could the masochistic personality be considered a maladaptive adjustment to extreme social inadequacy?

• Masochists share characteristics with other personality disorders. List these other disorders and explain the distinction between each and the masochist.

• What are the DSM-III-R criteria for the sadistic personality?

• The controlling personality is a normal variant of the sadistic personality. Describe and relate it to the more disordered criteria offered by the DSM-III-R.

• Explain how different personality styles combine to form each of the subtypes of the sadistic personality.

• Sadistic personalities share characteristics with other personality disorders. List these other disorders and explain the distinction between each and the sadist.

• What are the two personality disorders listed in the appendix of the DSM-IV?

• What are the DSM-IV criteria for the depressive personality?

• Could there be a normal variant to the depressive personality?

• Explain how different personality styles combine to form each of the subtypes of the depressive personality.

• Are depression and dysthymia the same disorder?

• Depressives share characteristics with other personality disorders. List these other disorders and explain the distinction between each and depressives.

• How are compulsives and negativists similar? How do they differ?

• What are the DSM-IV criteria for the passive-aggressive personality?

• Could there be a normal variant to the negativistic personality?

• Explain how different personality styles combine to form each of the subtypes of the negativistic personality.

• Negativists share characteristics with other personality disorders. List these other disorders and explain the distinction between each and negativists.

Each DSM contains an appendix, a place where disorders warranting additional study can be placed apart from those described in the main body of the text. Ideally, as empirical evidence accumulates, the status of these provisional disorders is revised on the basis of scientific findings alone. Such disorders either graduate to the level of accepted clinical currency or are dismissed from the DSM altogether.

This chapter includes four personality disorders; two, though present in the appendix of the third revised version of the DSM (APA, 1987), were dropped from DSM-IV, though more for political than scientific reasons. Despite their controversial nature, they are, nevertheless, widely known among clinicians and describe aspects of human nature that have no equivalent in the remaining constructs. Moreover, their existence is predicted by the evolutionary theory.

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