Urodynamics

Gamal M. Ghoniem and Usama M. Khater

Urodynamic investigation is a functional assessment of the lower urinary tract, which is performed to provide an objective pathophysiologic explanation of urinary tract dysfunction symptoms. Urodynamic studies comprise a series of tests, and the information provided by these tests is useful in establishing the etiology of the dysfunction and selecting the most appropriate intervention. The appropriate test should be selected and performed in an attempt to answer a specific question regarding the function to be evaluated. Urodynamic evaluation is an integral part of the evaluation of patients with voiding dysfunction. Before urodynamic investigation, a medical history, physical examination, and voiding diary should be completed. This information is necessary to select the appropriate studies and anticipate which events might occur during the urodynamic investigation.

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.

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