Urethral and Suprapubic Catheters

Indwelling urethral catheters are generally well tolerated for short intervals of time. However, because of chronic downward pressure of the catheter, urethral erosion eventually occurs. As the urethra widens, the patient either develops leakage around the catheter or is unable to retain the catheter balloon. Other complications of urethral catheters include pain, bladder spasms, and limitation of daily activities. Complications of chronic indwelling catheters may include the following:

• Urethral erosion

• Bladder spasm

• Urine leakage

• Bladder stones

• Urethral stricture

• Decreased quality of life

A suprapubic catheter offers several advantages over the urethral catheter. A suprapubic catheter is usually easier to care for and easier to change. As new treatments are tried, voiding trials with assessment of PVRs can be performed easily by capping the catheter. In addition, less pain and discomfort are reported with suprapubic catheters than with urethral catheters. Sexual relations may also be easier with suprapubic catheters rather than a urethral catheter.

We recommend yearly cystoscopy in patients with any indwelling catheter and patients performing ISC, because squamous cell carcinoma has been associated with catheterization and recurrent urinary tract infections.1012 Although the data regarding this matter remain incomplete, the low morbidity and efficiency of flexible cystoscopy contrasted with the aggressiveness and high mortality of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder persuade us to perform annual cystoscopy in these patients.

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.

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