Urethra

The urethra is a fibromuscular conduit, which serves to allow evacuation of urine from the bladder and provides urinary continence. The female urethra is 3 to 4 cm in length and is approximately 5 mm in diameter. The external orifice lies above the vaginal introitus and 2.5 cm below the glands clitoris. In the pelvis, the urethra lies anterior to the vagina and beneath the pubic bone. Transitional cells line the proximal two-thirds of the urethra. These cells change to a nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium in the distal one-third of the urethra. Urethral glands are distributed throughout its length and empty into the lumen. Obstruction and infection of these glands are thought to give rise to urethral diverticula. A group of these glands, known as Skene's glands, coalesce distally and

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