Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction

Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD), also referred to as biliary dyskinesia, presents with typical symptoms of biliary colic of right upper quadrant pain with nausea and vomiting. However, this pain is not actually caused by gallstones but instead a motility disorder with spasms of the sphincter of Oddi. By definition, an ultrasound would not show gallstones. In fact, the majority of these patients have already undergone a cholecystectomy, either for gallstones or suspected microlithiasis, before the diagnosis of SOD is seriously considered. When suspected, liver function tests should be checked in the midst of an episode. Abnormal aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase during episodes of pain, which later normalize, are highly suggestive in the appropriate clinical setting of SOD (assuming the patient has already undergone cholecystectomy). Abdominal ultrasound should be obtained, because a dilated common bile duct is also suggestive. An additional helpful noninvasive test is a hepatobiliary scan, which may show delay in emptying of the nuclear tracer into the duodenum. The most definitive diagnosis is established with biliary manometry obtained during an endo-scopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. This study is only available at certain centers and is generally performed only with hesitation, because the incidence of pancreatitis induced by this study is approximately 10%.

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

One of the main home remedies that you need to follow to prevent gallstones is a healthy lifestyle. You need to maintain a healthy body weight to prevent gallstones. The following are the best home remedies that will help you to treat and prevent gallstones.

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