1. Swash M, Henry MM, Snooks SJ. Unifying concept of pelvic floor disorders and incontinence. J R Soc Med 1985;78:906-911.

2. Davila GW, Ghoniem GM. Pelvic floor dysfunction: the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2003;16:3-4.

3. Sultan AH, Kamm MA, Hudson CN, Thomas JM, Bartram CI. Anal-sphincter disruption during vaginal delivery. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:1905-1911.

4. Davila GW. Informed consent for obstetrics management: a urogy-necologic perspective. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2001; 12:289-291.

5. Pollak JT, Chong D, Bratter J, Pietro P, Davila GW. C-section versus vaginal delivery: what do patients want? Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2003;14(suppl):S53.

6. Gonzalez-Argente FX, Jain A, Nogueras JJ, Davila GW, Weiss EG, Wexner SD. Prevalence and severity of urinary incontinence and pelvic genital prolapse in females with anal incontinence or rectal prolapse. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44:920-926.

7. Khullar V, Damiano R, Toozs-Hobson P, Cardozo L. Prevalence of faecal incontinence among women with urinary incontinence. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1998;105:1211-1213.

8. Meschia M, Buonaguidi A, Pifarotti P, Somigliana E, Spennacchio M, Amicarelli F. Prevalence of anal incontinence in women with symptoms of urinary incontinence and genital prolapse. Obstet Gynecol 2002;100:719-723.

9. Halverson AL, Hull TL, Paraiso MF, Floruta C. Outcome of sphinc-teroplasty combined with surgery for urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44:1421-1426.

10. Sun JH, Aguirre O, Davila GW. Team approach to pelvic floor dysfunction benefits the patient. Dis Colon Rectum 1999;42:A15.

Section II

Epidemiology and


Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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