References

1. Mavrantonis C, Wexner SD. A clinical approach to fecal incontinence. J Clin Gastroenterol 1998;27(2):108-121.

2. Nelson R, Norton N, Cautley E, Furner S. Community based prevalence of anal incontinence. JAMA 1995;274(7):559-561.

3. Rockwood TH, Church JM, Fleshman JW, et al. Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale: quality of life instrument for patients with fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43(1):9-16.

4. Rothbarth J, Bemelman WA, Meijerink WJ, et al. What is the impact of fecal incontinence on quality of life? Dis Colon Rectum 2001; 44(1):67-71.

5. Sangwan YP, Coller JA. Fecal incontinence. Surg Clin North Am 1994; 74(6):1377-1398.

6. Whitehead WE, Wald A, Norton NJ. Treatment options for fecal ineontinenee. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44(1):131-142.

l. Jorge JM, Wexner SD. Etiology and management of fecal inconti-nenee. Dis Colon Rectum 1993;36(1):ll-9l.

8. Mellgren A, Jensen LL, Zetterstrom JP. Long term cost of fecal incon-tinenee secondary to obstetric injuries. Dis Colon Rectum 1999; 42(l):85l-865.

9. Ko CY, Tong J, Lehman RE, Shelton AA, Schrock TR, Welton ML. Biofeedback is effective therapy for fecal incontinence and constipation. Areh Surg 199l;132(8):829-833.

10. Rotholtz N, Wexner SD. Surgical treatment of constipation and feeal ineontinenee. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2001;30(1):131-166.

11. Branagan G, Tromans A, Finnis D. Effect of stoma formation on bowel care and quality of life in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2003;41(12):680-683.

12. Wexner SD, Schmitt SL. Fecal incontinence: surgical therapy. In: Brubaker L, Sacclarides T, eds. The Female Pelvic Floor: A Multidis-eiplinary Approach. Philadelphia: FA Davis; 1996:220.

13. Baig MK,Wexner SD. Factors predictive of outcome after surgery for faeeal ineontinenee. Br J Surg 2000;81:1316-1330.

14. Hasegawa H, Yoshioka K, Keighley MR. Randomized trial of fecal diversion for sphincter repair. Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43(7):961-964.

15. Oliveira L, Reissman P, Nogueras J, Wexner SD. Laparoscopic creation of stomas. Surg Endosc 1997;11(1):19-23.

16. Bagi P, Jendresen M, Kirkegaard P. Early local stoma complications in relation to the applied suture material: comparison between monofilament and multifilament sutures. Dis Colon Rectum 1992; 35(8):739-742.

17. Duchesne JC, Wang YZ, Weintraub SL, Boyle M, Hunt JP. Stoma complications: a multivariate analysis. Am Surg 2002;68(11):961-966.

18. Edwards DP, Leppington-Clarke A, Sexton R, Heald RJ, Moran BJ. Stoma-related complications are more frequent after transverse colostomy than loop ileostomy: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Br J Surg 2001;88(3):360-363.

19. Park JJ, Del Pino A, Orsay CP, et al. Stoma complications: the Cook County Hospital experience. Dis Colon Rectum 1999;42(12):1575-1580.

20. Shellito PC. Complications of abdominal stoma surgery. Dis Colon Rectum 1998;41(12):1562-1572.

21. Wexner SD, Taranow DA, Johansen OB, et al. Loop ileostomy is a safe option for fecal diversion. Dis Colon Rectum 1993;36(4):349-354.

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Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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