References

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2. Wexner SD, Marchetti F, Jagelman D. The role of sphincteroplasty for fecal incontinence reevaluated: a prospective physiologic and functional review. Dis Colon Rectum 1991;34:22-30.

3. Baeten CG, Bailey HR, Bakka A, et al. Safety and efficacy of dynamic graciloplasty for fecal incontinence: report of a prospective, multicenter trial. Dynamic Graciloplasty Therapy Study group. Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43:743-751.

4. Wexner SD, Baeten CM, Bailey R, et al. Long-term efficacy of dynamic graciloplasty for fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:809-818.

5. Wexner SD, Gonzalez-Padron A, Rius J, et al. Stimulated gracilis neosphincter operation. Initial experience, pitfalls, and complications. Dis Colon Rectum 1996; 39:957-964.

6. Matzel KE, Madoff RD, LaFontaine LJ, et al. Complications of dynamic graciloplasty: incidence, management, and impact on outcome. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44:1427-1435.

7. da Silva GM, Jorge JM, Belin B, et al. New surgical options for fecal incontinence in patients with imperforate anus. Dis Colon Rectum 2004;47:204-209.

8. Christiansen J, Sparso B. Treatment of anal incontinence by implantable prosthetic anal sphincter. Ann Surg 1992;215:383-386.

9. Wong WD, Congliosi SM, Spencer MP, et al. The safety and efficacy of the artificial bowel sphincter for fecal incontinence: results from a multicenter cohort study. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:1139-1153.

10. Ortiz H, Armendariz P, DeMiguel M, Solana A, Alos R, Roig JV. Prospective study of artificial anal sphincter and dynamic gracilo-plasty for severe anal incontinence. Int J Colorect Dis 2003; 18: 349-354.

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12. Efron JE, Corman ML, Fleshman J, et al. Safety and effectiveness of temperature-controlled radiofrequency energy delivery to the anal canal (Secca procedure) for the treatment of fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 2003;46:1606-1618.

13. Matzel KE, Stadelmaier U, Hohenfellner M, et al. Electrical stimulation of the sacral spinal nerves for treatment of fecal incontinence. Lancet 1995;346:1124-1127.

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17. Matzel KE, Stadelmaier U, Hohenfellner, Gall FP. Chronic sacral spinal nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence: Long term results with foramen and cuff electrode. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;4:59-

18. Rosen H, Urbarz C, Holzer B, Novi G, Schiessel R. Sacral nerve stimulation as a treatment for neurogenic and idiopathic fecal incontinence. Gastroenterology 2001;121:536-541.

19. Vaizey CJ, Kamm MA, Turner IC, Nicholls RJ, Woloszko J. Effects of short-term sacral nerve stimulation on anal and rectal function in patients with anal incontinence. Gut 1999;44:407-412.

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