References

1. Law PJ, Bartram CI. Anal endosonography: technique and normal anatomy. Gastrointest Radiol 1989;14:349-353.

2. Nielsen MB, Pederson JF, Hauge C, Rasmussen OO, Christiansen J. Endosonography of the anal sphincter: Findings in healthy volun-teers.AJR Am J Roentgenol 1991;157(6):1199-1202.

3. Burnett SJD, Bartram CI. Endosonographie variations in the normal anal sphincter. Int J Colorectal Dis 1991;6:2-4.

4. Tjandra JJ, Milsom JW, Stolfi VM, et al. Endoluminal ultrasound defines anatomy of the anal eanal and pelvie floor. Dis Colon Rectum 1992;35:465-470.

5. Zetterstrom JP, Mellgren A, Madoff RD, Kim DG, Wong WD. Perineal body measurement improves evaluation of anterior sphincter lesions during endoanal ultrasonography. Dis Colon Rectum 1998; 41:705-713.

6. de Leeuw JW, Vierhout ME, Struijk PC, Auwerda HJ, Bac DJ, Wallenburg HC. Anal sphincter damage after vaginal delivery: relationship of anal endosonography and manometry to anorectal complaints. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:1004-1010.

7. Burnett SJD, Speakman CTM, Kamm MA, Bartram CI. Confirmation of endosonographic detection of external anal sphincter defects by simultaneous electromyographic mapping. Br J Surg 1991;78: 448-450.

8. Emblem R, Dhaenens G, Stien R, Morkrid L, Aasen AO, Bergan A. The importance of anal endosonography in the evaluation of idio-pathic fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 1994;37:42-48.

9. Sentovich SM, Wong WD, Blatchford GJ. Accuracy and reliability of transanal ultrasound for anterior anal sphincter injury. Dis Colon Rectum 1998;41:1000-1004.

10. Nielsen MB, Dammegaard L, Pedersen JF. Endosonographic assessment of the anal sphincter after surgical reconstruction. Dis Colon Rectum 1994;37:434-438.

11. Law PJ, Talbot RW, Bartram CI, Northover JMA. Anal endosonogra-phy in the evaluation of perianal sepsis and fistula in ano. Br J Surg 1989;76:752-755.

12. Cho DY. Endosonographic criteria for an internal opening of fistula-in-ano. Dis Colon Rectum 1999;42:515-518.

13. Choen S, Burnett S, Bartram CI, Nicholls RJ. Comparison between anal endosonography and digital examination in the evaluation of anal fistulae. Br J Surg 1991;78:445-447.

14. Yang YK, Wexner SD, Nogueras JJ, et al. The role of anal ultrasound in the assessment of benign anorectal disease. Coloproctology 1993; 5:260-264.

15. Cheong DMO, Nogueras JJ, Wexner SD, Jagelman DG. Anal endosonography for recurrent anal fistulas: image enhancement with hydrogen peroxide. Dis Colon Rectum 1993;36:1158-1160.

16. Poen AC, Felt-Bersma RJ, Eijsbouts QA, Cuesta MA, Meuwissen SG. Hydrogen peroxide-enhanced transanal ultrasound in the assessment of fistula-in-ano. Dis Colon Rectum 1998;41:1147-1152.

17. Sudol-Szopinska I, Gesla J, Jakubowski W, Noszczyk W, Szczepkowsi M, Sarti D. Reliability of endosonography in evaluation of anal fistulae and abscesses. Acta Radiol 2002;43:599-602.

18. Yee LF, Birnbaum EH, Read TE, Kodner IJ, Fleshman JW. Use of endoanal ultrasound in patients with rectovaginal fistulas. Dis Colon Rectum 1999;42:1057-1064.

19. Maier AG, Funovics MA, Kreuzer SH, et al. Evaluation of perianal sepsis: comparison of anal endosonography and magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 2001;14:254-260.

20. Orsoni P, Barthet M, Portier F, Panuel M, Desjeux A, Grimaud JC. Prospective comparison of endosonography, magnetic resonance imaging and surgical findings in anorectal fistula and abscess complicating Crohn's disease. Br J Surg 1999;86:1093-1094.

21. Christiansen J, Bruun E, Skjoldbye B, Hagen K. Chronic idiopathic anal pain: analysis of ultrasonography, pathology, and treatment. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44:661-665.

22. Tarantino D, Bernstein MA. Endoanal ultrasound in the staging and management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: potential implications of a new ultrasound staging system. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:16-22.

23. Magdeburg B, Fried M, Meyenberger C. Endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of anal carcinomas. Endoscopy 1999;31:359-364.

24. Sultan AH, Loder PB, Bartram CI, Kamm MA, Hudson CN. Vaginal endosonography: new approach to image the undisturbed anal sphincter. Dis Colon Rectum 1994;37:1296-1299.

25. Beer-Gabel M, Teshler M, Barzilai N, et al. Dynamic transperineal ultrasound in the diagnosis of pelvic floor disorders: pilot study. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:239-248.

26. deSouza NM, Gilderdale DJ, MacIver DK, Ward HC. High-resolution MR imaging of the anal sphincter in children: a pilot study using endoanal receiver coils. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1997;169:201-206.

27. deSouza NM, Puni R, Kmiot WA, Bartram CI, Hall AS, Bydder GM. MRI of the anal sphincter. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1995;19:745-751.

28. Hussain SM, Stoker J, Schutte HE, Lameris JS. Imaging of the anorectal region. Eur J Radiol 1996;22:116-122.

29. Strohbehn K, Ellis JH, Strohbehn JA, DeLancey JO. Magnetic resonance imaging of the levator ani with anatomic correlation. Obstet Gynecol 1996;87:277-285.

30. deSouza NM, Puni R, Zbar A, Gilderdale DJ, Coutts GA, Krausz T. MR imaging of the anal sphincter in multiparous women using an endoanal coil: correlation with in vitro anatomy and appearance in fecal incontinence. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1996;167:1465-1471.

Biofeedback Mastery

Biofeedback Mastery

Have you ever wondered what Biofeedback is all about? Uncover these unique information on Biofeedback! Are you in constant pain? Do you wish you could ever just find some relief? If so, you are not alone. Relieving chronic pain can be difficult and frustrating.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment