1. Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M, et al. The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function: Report from the Standardisation Sub-committee of International Continent Society. Neurourol Urodyn 2002;21:167-178.
2. Fantl A, Newman K. Urinary Incontinence in Adults, Clinical Practice Guideline Update. Rockville,MD: US Department of Health Services, Public Health Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; March 1996. AHCPR publication 96-0682.
3. Chiarelli P, Brown W, McElduff P. Leaking urine: prevalence and associated factors in Australian women. Neurourol Urodyn 1999;18: 567-577.
4. Nygaard IE, Lemke JH. Urinary incontinence in rural older women: prevalence, incidence and remission. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;44:1049.
5. Yarnell JW,Voyle GJ, Richards CJ, Stephenson TP. The prevalence and severity of urinary incontinence in women. J Epidemiol Community Health 1981;35:17.
6. Cheater M, Castleden M. Epidemiology and classification of urinary incontinence. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2000;14:183.
7. Diokno C, Broke M, Herzog R. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and other urological symptoms in the noninstitutional elderly. J Urol 1986;136:1022.
8. Peet SC, Castleden CM. The prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence in hospitals and residential and nursing homes for older people. BMJ 1995;311:1063.
9. Brieger GM, Mongelli M, Hint LY, et al. The epidemiology of urinary dysfunction in Chinese women. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dys-funct 1997;8:191.
10. Lara C, Nacey J. Ethnic differences between Mori, Pacific Island and European New Zealand women in prevalence and attitudes to urinary incontinence. N Z Med J 1994;107:374.
11. Nakanishi N, Atar K, Naramura H, et al. Urinary and fecal incontinence in a community-residing older population in Japan. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:215.
12. Mattox F, Battia N. The prevalence of urinary incontinence or prolapse among white and Hispanic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993; 81:421-425.
13. Fultz H, Herzog R, Raghunathan E, Wallace B, Diokno C. Prevalence and severity of urinary incontinence in older African American and Caucasian women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1999;54:M299-M303.
14. Knobel J. Stress incontinence in black female. S Afr J Obstet Gynecol 1975;49:430.
15. Howard D, Dvies S, Delancey O, Small Y. Differences in perineal lacerations in black and white primiparas. Obstet Gynecol 2000; 96:622.
16. Davila G, Neimark M. The overactive bladder: prevalence and effects on quality of life. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2002;45:173-181.
17. Burgio L, Locher L, Zyczynski H, Hardin M, Singh K. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy in racially mixed sample: characteristics and predisposing factors. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 1996;7:69.
18. Mellier G, Delille MA. Urinary disorders during pregnancy and postpartum. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet 1990;85:525-528.
19. Viktrup L, Lose G, Rolff M, Farfoed K. The symptom of stress incontinence caused by pregnancy or delivery in primiparas. Obstet Gynecol 1992;79:945.
20. Foldspang A, Mommsen S, Lam GW, Elving L. Parity as a correlate of adult female urinary incontinence prevalence. J Epidemiol Community Health 1992;46:595-600.
21. Rekers H, Drogendijk C, Valkenburg H, Riphagen F. Urinary incontinence in women from 35 to 79 years of age: prevalence and consequences. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1992;43: 229.
22. Milsom I, Ekelund P, Molander U, Arvidsson L, Areskoug B. The influence of age, parity, oral contraception, hysterectomy and menopause on prevalence of urinary incontinence in women. J Urol 1993; 149:1459.
23. Brown S, Sawaya G, Thom H, Grady D. Hysterectomy and urinary incontinence: a systemic review. Lancet 2000;356:535.
24. Mommsen S, Foldspang A. Body mass index and adult female urinary incontinence. World J Urol 1994;12:319.
25. Aggazzotti G, Pesce F, Grassi D, et al. Prevalence of urinary incontinence among institutionalized patients: a cross sectional epidemio-logic study in a midsized city in northern Italy. Urology 2000;56: 245.
26. Brandeis H, Baumann M, Hossain M, Morris JN, Resnick NM. The prevalence of potentially remediable urinary incontinence in frail older people: a study using the minimum data set. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:179-184.
27. Maggi S, Minicuci N, Langlois J, Pavan M, Enzi G, Crepalid G. Prevalence rate of urinary incontinence in community-dwelling elderly individuals: the Veneto study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001; 56:M14-M18.
28. Bump C, Mcclish K. Cigarette smoking and urinary incontinence in women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992;167:1213.
29. Hording U, Pendersen H, Sidenius K, Hedegaard L. Urinary incontinence in 45-year-old women. An epidemiological survey. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1986;20:183.
30. Jolleys V. Reported prevalence of urinary incontinence in women in a general practice. BMJ 1988;296:1300.
31. Foldspang A, Mommsen S. Adult female urinary incontinence and childhood bedwetting. J Urol 1994;152:85.
32. Stewart W, Herzog R, Wein A, et al. Prevalence and impact of overactive bladder in the USA: results from the NOBLE program. Neu-rourol Urodyn 2001;20:406.
33. Milsom I, Abrams P, Cardozo L, Roberts RG, Thuroff J, Wein A. How widespread are the symptoms of an overactive bladder and how are they managed? A population-based prevalence study. BJU Int 2001; 87:760-766.
34. Brown JS, Vittinghom E, Wyman JF, et al. Urinary incontinence: does it increase risk for falls and fractures? Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. J Am Geriatri Soc 2000;48(7):721-725.
35. Zorn H, Montgomery H, Pieper K, Gray M, Steers D. Urinary incontinence and depression. J Urol 1999;162(1):82-84.
Was this article helpful?