Rectovaginal Fistula

Susan M. Cera and Juan J. Nogueras

Rectovaginal fistulas are abnormal epithelial-lined communications between the vagina and rectum (Figure 132.1). Communications that occur below the dentate line are considered anovaginal fistulas; however, their approach and management are similar to rectovaginal fistulas and are classified as such. Fortunately, rectovaginal fistulas are an uncommon problem comprising approximately 5% of all anorectal fistulas.1 However, surgical management remains a challenge and requires a methodical approach in choosing the appropriate corrective procedure to ensure operative success.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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