Rectovaginal Fistula

Susan M. Cera and Juan J. Nogueras

Rectovaginal fistulas are abnormal epithelial-lined communications between the vagina and rectum (Figure 132.1). Communications that occur below the dentate line are considered anovaginal fistulas; however, their approach and management are similar to rectovaginal fistulas and are classified as such. Fortunately, rectovaginal fistulas are an uncommon problem comprising approximately 5% of all anorectal fistulas.1 However, surgical management remains a challenge and requires a methodical approach in choosing the appropriate corrective procedure to ensure operative success.

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