Prevalence and Etiology

The exact prevalence of urinary retention (UR) in women remains unknown, because many of the cases of acute retention are not reported. However, the prevalence of impaired bladder emptying as a cause of chronic UR in women who were referred to a urodynamic clinic was reported to range from 13% to 26%.1,2

In general, women with UR can present in acute or chronic status. The most common causes of acute UR are postsurgical,either after a pelvic (anti-incontinence surgery, hysterectomy, pelvic organ prolapse repair), abdominal (anterior pelvic resection, colectomy) or a non-pelvic organ-related surgery. The latter causes are usually attributed to the effects of anesthesia on the bladder function.

Causes of chronic UR can be broadly classified into five categories: neurologic, anatomic, inflammatory, functional, and idiopathic. Table 10-1.1 provides a list of these causes. Details are discussed in another chapter.

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.

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