Prevalence and Etiology

The exact prevalence of urinary retention (UR) in women remains unknown, because many of the cases of acute retention are not reported. However, the prevalence of impaired bladder emptying as a cause of chronic UR in women who were referred to a urodynamic clinic was reported to range from 13% to 26%.1,2

In general, women with UR can present in acute or chronic status. The most common causes of acute UR are postsurgical,either after a pelvic (anti-incontinence surgery, hysterectomy, pelvic organ prolapse repair), abdominal (anterior pelvic resection, colectomy) or a non-pelvic organ-related surgery. The latter causes are usually attributed to the effects of anesthesia on the bladder function.

Causes of chronic UR can be broadly classified into five categories: neurologic, anatomic, inflammatory, functional, and idiopathic. Table 10-1.1 provides a list of these causes. Details are discussed in another chapter.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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