Physical Examination

The physical examination of patients with suspected BOO should include a general abdominal examination, a neurologic examination, and a detailed combined perineal/ vaginal examination. Abdominal examination may reveal a distended bladder. The neurologic examination should include testing of the bulbocavernosus reflex, anal tone, and perineal sensation to exclude any neurologic cause of voiding dysfunction.

During vaginal examination, periurethral scarring may become apparent through observation and palpation. A lighted speculum is very helpful in the vaginal examination, especially in the detection of signs of erosion. The entire urethra should be palpated carefully for any tender area or mass. In cases of excessive scarring, the urethra will be hypersuspended in a high retropubic position and cemented to the anterior vaginal wall.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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