Management of Urinary Tract Injuries

Gamal M. Ghoniem and John C. Hairston

Iatrogenic injury to the urinary tract is caused by surgery in or around the pelvis and the retroperitoneal space. Injuries to the ureter are the most common, followed by injuries to the bladder and urethra. This is because of the similarity of the ureters to vascular structures, difficulty in identifying them as a result of their close adherence to the posterior peritoneum, and their long course in the abdomen and pelvis. Add to this the inherent difficulties of reoperation or operating in a pelvic malignancy, or the occasional unexpected congenital anomaly such as ureteral duplication or retrocaval ureter. Furthermore, the recent use of laparoscopy and endoscopy carries with it additional risks. Lack of recognition at the time of injury often mandates further surgical procedures with their associated morbidity and may result in loss of renal function or, worse, loss of a renal unit.

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.

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