Management of Radiationinduced Vesicovaginal Fistula

Vesicovaginal fistula caused by radiation therapy can be repaired as previously described, provided that the tissues are well-vascularized. The placement of nonirradiation tissues between the bladder and vaginal closure is required. When radiation-induced VVF is associated with radiation necrosis and fibrosis, mobilization of vascular pedicles is required. Vascular sources may include muscles such as the gluteus maximus or rectus abdominis, or a labial or omental flap. Before attempting repair, recurrent malignancy must be ruled out by biopsy of affected tissues.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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