Urethral injury during difficult dissection will be directly detected by seeing the catheter exposed in the field. Palpation of the catheter during dissection will help to avoid injury. Primary repair of iatrogenic urethral injuries is the method of choice. Mobilization of the urethra and periurethral tissue is necessary to obtain tension-free repair. Watertight anastomosis with absorbable suture in overlapping layers ensures good results. In case of loss of urethral wall, reconstruction can be performed using a vaginal wall flap in females or by creating an anteriorly based tubular-ized bladder flap. In case of compromised blood supply and presence of scar, a modified Martius graft is useful.11 In males, many grafts have been used, but our preference is penile skin or foreskin pedicled grafts. These can usually reach up to the bulbomembranous urethra and cover up to 8-cm gaps.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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