Very few data are available regarding the impact of estrogen deprivation after menopause on colorectal function. Many of the changes in colorectal function, such as increased incidence of hemorrhoids and weakening of the anal sphincter are thought to be age-related, rather than caused by hormonal changes. However, estrogen receptors have been found in the external anal sphincter, and there is some anecdotal evidence that local estrogen therapy may be useful in the treatment of hemorrhoids.8
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.