Females

Most of the published data on urinary diaries have been obtained in women. Several studies established normal values for healthy females.20-23 Data obtained from frequency-volume charts of normal females showed that mean voided volume was 230 to 250 mL, mean frequency was 5.7 to 7.3, and total voided volume was 1272 to 1350 mL. Two of these studies analyzed diurnal and nocturnal data separately.21,23 This may be important, because nighttime diuresis may exceed daytime diuresis and be responsible for nocturia,especially in the elderly.According to this study, the increase in urine volume during the night can be attributed to three physiologic reasons. First, the circadian rhythm of antidiuretic hormone, the rennin-angiotensin aldosterone mechanism, or atrial natriuretic hormone secretion may be abnormal. Second, the glomerular filtration rate or renal plasma flow may be altered to reduce the concentrating ability of the distal tubules. Third, an impaired cardiovascular system may not be able to supply sufficient amounts of blood to the kidneys during waking hours because of edema of lower extremities. The data obtained from the frequency-volume charts of normal females showed the mean voided volume was 230 to 250 mL, the mean frequency was from 5.7 to 7.3, and the total voided volume was 1272 to 1350mL.20-23

Fitzgerald et al.24 studied urinary habits with voiding diaries in asymptomatic women and reported that diary variables are affected by age, race, and fluid intake. Voids per liter intake varied with age and were higher among parous and Asian women. The number of nighttime voids depended only on patient age. The mean and maximum voided volumes were lower among black women.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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