Etiology

Numerous theories have been investigated to identify the etiology of vulvar vestibulitis. Chronic bacterial and viral infections have been the strongest focus of study. Candida, chlamydia, gonorrhea, mycoplasma, contact dermatitis and other allergic responses, hormonal reaction, and psychosomatic causes have also been considered. Despite these extensive investigations, the etiology remains unclear and may be multifactorial.

Human papillomavirus has been the most thoroughly studied virus as an etiology. Numerous studies have tried to correlate the presence of HPV with vulvar vestibulitis symptoms, but the results have been highly variable, reporting 0% to 85% rates of identifiable HPV in vestibulitis patients.18-22 In addition, no difference has been noted in HPV-positive and -negative women in response to treatment.23 Human papillomavirus does not seem to be causative or, if present, affect treatment outcomes.

During the initiation of urination, urine separates the labia minora and thus wets the entire vestibule, thus, contact with urinary irritants, particularly oxalates, has been researched as a possible etiology. Oxalates are organic acids excreted in the urine that can cause pruritus and burning. Many studies have shown higher rates of hyper-oxaluria in women with vestibulitis. These findings, however, have been inconsistent.24-26

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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