Usama M. Khater,Gassan Haddad,and Gamal M.Ghoniem
Millions of the general population,particularly women and the elderly, have bladder dysfunction. Although most studies have mainly focused on incontinence, more recently, attention has also included overactive bladder (OAB). Therefore, this chapter will be focused on urinary incontinence (UI) and OAB, because both of them constitute the most common causes of urinary dysfunction.
In 1988, the International Continence Society (ICS) defined UI as the involuntary loss of urine that is objectively demonstrable and is a social or hygienic problem. Recently, the ICS redefined it as the complaint of any involuntary leakage of urine.1 The impact of the new definition is that more cases of UI will be discovered and hopefully treated. Urinary incontinence symptoms mainly are stress (SUI), which is leakage with physical exertion, urge (UUI), which is leakage with a strong desire to void, and mixed, which is a combination of SUI and UUI. When SUI is uro-dynamically proven, it is also called genuine stress incontinence (GSI). Urinary urgency and frequency with urge incontinence has recently been defined as OAB/wet. There are other types of incontinence, although less frequent, including overflow incontinence, functional, and extra-urethral incontinence.
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