Embryology

In early female gestation, the cloaca separates into anterior and posterior divisions. The anterior division develops into the urogenital sinus. This endodermal structure then morphs into the bladder, urethra, and vaginal bulb. The bulb forms a portion of the superior vagina and inferiorly fuses with the genital ectoderm. This fusion point forms the vulvar vestibule.

The common embryologic origin of the vestibule, urethra, and bladder has suggested an etiologic association among chronic painful conditions involving these tissues. This may help explain the similarity in physical and histologic findings, prevalence rates, and treatment strategies for vulvar vestibulitis, trigonitis, urethritis, and interstitial cystitis.1,2 Interstitial cystitis is considered in a separate chapter.

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.

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