Electromyography is the study of electrical activities generated by muscle, using either surface or needle electrodes. It provides useful information about sphincter function, but is most valuable when performed with cystometry. Although direct needle electromyography of the urethral sphincter provides the most accurate information, surface electrodes are more often used. Electromyography recording shows the activity of the voluntary component of the urinary sphincter mechanism and the overall activity of the pelvic floor. The interpretation is mainly restricted to the recording of progressively increasing EMG activity during bladder filling (guarding reflex). Reduced or silent EMG activity during bladder filling may indicate an incompetent urethral closure mechanism. Normally, EMG activity should decrease during voluntary voiding; if this does not occur, urethral function may be overactive. Increased EMG activity during voiding may indicate abdominal straining. Waxing and waning of the sphincter EMG during voiding suggests a functional obstruction (detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia). Surface EMG technique is also valuable when judging the effect of pelvic floor training therapy and can be used in biofeedback treatment.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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