Fecal incontinence secondary to sphincter damage is best managed by overlapping sphincteroplasty. The most successful outcomes are found in patients with isolated sphincter defects without evidence of pudendal neuropa thy. Multifocal defects and unilateral or bilateral pudendal neuropathy argue for poor outcome. These patients may be better served with postanal or total pelvic floor repair, sacral nerve stimulation, or sphincter augmentation or replacement before embarking on a permanent stoma. All types of surgical intervention for fecal incontinence should simultaneously address other disorders of the pelvic floor and urinary incontinence.
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.