James Doty and Eric G.Weiss
An understanding of the anorectal anatomy and its relationship to the pelvic floor is essential to understanding the pathophysiology of pelvic floor dysfunction and thus how to evaluate and manage its disorders.
The pelvic floor is composed of the pelvic floor musculature, the fascia of the pelvic floor, the associated viscera that pass through, and the blood vessels and nerves that supply these structures. The major components of the pelvic floor from cephalic to caudal are the peritoneum, viscera, endopelvic fascia, levator ani muscles, and external genital muscles.
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.