The Role of Aluminum in Neurotoxic and Neurodegenerative Processes

Tamas Kiss,1 Krisztina Gajda-Schrantz,1 and Paolo F. Zatta2

'Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Bioinorganic Chemistry Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, P.O. Box 440, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary <[email protected]>

2CNR Institute for Biomedical Technologies, Metalloproteins Unit, Department of Biology, University of Padova, Viale G. Colombo, 3, 35121 Padova, Italy <[email protected]>

1 INTRODUCTION 372

2 CHEMICAL FORMS OF ALUMINUM IN BIOLOGICAL

SYSTEMS 374

2.1 Free Ions and Mononuclear Ions 374

2.2 Low Molecular Mass Complexes 375

2.3 Reversible Macromolecular Complexes 376

2.3.1 Interactions with Non-enzyme Proteins 376

2.3.2 Interactions with Enzyme Proteins 376

2.4 Irreversible Macromolecular Complexes 376

3 ALUMINUM LOADING IN HUMANS 377

3.1 Aluminum Metabolism 377

3.2 Speciation of Al(III) in Blood Serum 378

4 TOXICOLOGY OF ALUMINUM IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS 380

4.1 Experimental Toxicology 380

4.2 Biochemical Toxicology 381

4.2.1 Acetylcholinesterase 382

4.2.2 Monoamine Oxidase 382

4.2.3 Carbonic Anhydrase 382

Metal Ions in Life Sciences, Volume 1 Edited by Astrid Sigel, Helmut Sigel and Roland K. O. Sigel © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

4.2.5 ATP-dependent Enzymatic Activities 382 4.3 Human Toxicology 383

5 ALUMINUM AND ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE 384

6 GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 387 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 388 ABBREVIATIONS 388 REFERENCES 389

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