Trench fever

Trench fever is a louse-borne infection caused by the bacterium B. quintana. The latest great epidemics of trench fever took place during First World War in Europe (Maurin and Raoult, 1996). A large outbreak of trench fever accompanied by epidemic typhus took place recently in Burundi (Raoult et al. 1998). Cases of B. quintana infection have been reported during the last decade from Europe and North America, mainly in HIV-infected persons, homeless persons, and persons with chronic alcoholism (Rydkina et al. 1999). Bartonella quintana can cause bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. In healthy patients, B. quintana can cause bacillary angiomatosis, lymphadenopathy, endocarditis, and central nervous system (CNS) infections (Rydkina et al. 1999).

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