Demonstration of larvae in the tissue is very difficult and seldom successful. For that reason the diagnosis is based on indirect methods such as antibody detection. The current assays mostly rely on excretory/secretory products of cultured larvae (de Savigny 1975) used in ELISA (Ljungstrom and van Knapen 1989; Jacquier et al. 1991). Cross-reactivity between Toxocara spp. and Ascaris in healthy population seems not to exist. However, in suspected patients, antibodies to both parasites are seen in almost 50% of the seropositive individuals (van Knapen et al. 1992). In areas endemic for both Ascaris and Toxocara, both infections in one person may take place simultaneously.

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