Malaria

During the 1940s and the 1950s in the Soviet Union, a malaria control programme was carried out to get rid of this infection, covering the territory of the Baltic States as well. Malaria data available are given in Table 5.2. The high number of malaria cases in the second half of the 1940s and beginning of the 1950s can be explained by the fact that during the post-war period, large-scale immigration of people from other parts of Soviet Union began to the Baltic region. This is supported by data from Estonia, where the number of indigenous cases is known for these years, and it is insignificant compared to the amount of imported cases. It is only in 1948 when there seems to have been a local indigenous outbreak or imported cases were registered as local ones (people registering themselves as local inhabitants before being diagnosed). The high number of indigenous cases in Latvia in the end of the 1940s and the beginning of the 1950s might be explained with the possibility that people arriving from other parts of

Soviet Union had registered themselves as local inhabitants before they were diagnosed for malaria. Lithuanian data between 1945 and 1957 include both imported and

Table 5.2 Malaria cases in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania

Year Number of cases

Number of cases

Number of cases

Estonia

Latvia

Lithuania Year

Estonia

Latvia

Lithuania Year

Estonia Latvia Lithuania

1926

1

15

1950

168 (0) 288 (230)

2591974

0

0

3

1927

4

1951

55 (0)

71 (44)

641975

12

2

3

1928

6

1952

35 (3)

43 (28)

191976

7

1

1

1929

0

1953

17

24 (9)

191977

13

2

15

1930

0

1954

3

20

201978

24

0

9

1931

0

1955

5

12

201979

16

1

11

1932

1

2

1956

1

4

101980

12

3

4

1933

0

3

1957

2

2

31981

9

0

6

1934

1

1958

2

9

1982

10

5

4

1935

1

2

1959

0

0

1983

16

2

8

1936

1

3

1960

0

2

01984

21

4

8

1937

4

3

1961

0

2

01985

9

1

9

1938

12

4

1962

0

1

11986

7

0

12

1939

15

1963

2

3

01987

7

3

19

1940

1964

5

1

01988

6

3

15

1941

1965

3

3

01989

14

4

12

1942

26

1966

2

0

01990

5

3

3

1943

(5)a

1967

1

2

21991

8

2

0

1944

1968

2

5

01992

3

6

2

1945

523 (15)

4641969

5

0

01993

3

4

8

1946

522 (8)

1 6321970

1

2

01994

11

2

7

1947

1 104 (11)

2 391 (2 391)

1 7811971

3

4

11995

2

4

1948

946 (170)

2 963 (2 103)

29461972

2

0

11996

3

12

1949

260 (7)

961 (721)

1 9261973

4

4

21997

Note a Number in parentheses denotes indigenous cases when known.

Note a Number in parentheses denotes indigenous cases when known.

Page 56

indigenous cases. Since 1953 in Estonia, 1956 in Latvia and 1957 in Lithuania only imported cases have been reported. Beginning from the 1970s, the number of imported case have risen in Estonia and Lithuania. The disease was registered mostly among sailors and during the period of the Afghanistan war, among the returning soldiers in all three countries. Since 1992, Lithuania and Latvia have been facing a new problem of illegal immigrants, importing malaria from endemic countries. Most often, Plasmodium vivax is identified. Forty-five per cent of permanent water bodies are anophelogenic in Lithuania with A. maculipennis dominating. Due to the climatic conditions favourable for P. vivax to mature in mosquitoes, there is a potential possibility for indigenous malaria to reappear in the most southern one of the Baltic states.

In Estonia, most of the cases of imported malaria during the 1980s originated from Angola where the Estonian Fishing Company was running a shipyard in Luanda. In most cases, Plasmodium falciparum was identified (Andrejeva and Berseneva 1979; Mihailova et al. 1990).

0 0

Post a comment